Sunday, July 30, 2017

The Different Types of ARCHERY Bows

English: I, Ewok Slayer, Created this Image. C...
ECompound Bow. Full Size. Orig. 1300 kb.
(Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Bows are used to shoot arrows. In ancient times bows were used in combat and hunting. Archery which uses bows and arrows has become a popular sport. There are many types of archery bows available in the market. This article gives information about the basic types of archery bows

Following are the types of archery Bows;
Longbow: Longbows are tall. In fact they are taller than the user’s height. They have relatively narrow limbs which have a D shaped cross section. As compared to other bows, they are not significantly recurved.

Traditional English longbows are made in such a way that their thickness are 5/8 or more of its width. If it is less than the specified width then the bow is disqualified from long bow competitions. 

If you want to take part in long bow competitions then it is necessary that your long bow meets the desired specifications. At the handle, long bow is widest. Longbows have been commonly used for warfare and hunting by many ancient cultures of the world.

During the period of Middle ages, English longbows are frequently used. The English long bow was 6.6 feet i.e. approximately 2 meters long. The Scot, Welsh and Scots used it as a war weapon. It was used in various battles such as battle of Crecy in 1346 and battle of Agincourt in 1415.

Flat bow: Flat bows are non recurved, flat and have relatively wide limbs. They have approximately rectangular cross-section.  Most modern flat bows are very similar to classic longbows.

Shortbows: Shorter version of a flat bow or longbow designs is nothing but a short bow. An important feature of short bow is that they are more maneuverable than flat bows and longbows. The arrow can cannot be drawn very far as the bow is short. Therefore shortbows store less energy; hence their maximum range is not long as compared to longbows. Shortbows were previously used for hunting purpose by many American tribes and by African Bushmen.

Recurve Bows: Recurve bows are the only bows that are used at the Olympics. As they are extremely light in weight many Olympic players prefer these bows.  Its working principle is similar to that of traditional longbows. Limb ends, curve forward which helps to smoothen the draw.

Compound Bows: A Compound bow considerably reduces the force that many archers have to hold. As less force is required to hold compound bows at full draw, the user can more concentrate on the target. Overall energy is also stored by this bow. Compound designs use elliptical or cam wheels on limb ends to optimize leverage that is exerted by the user.

Crossbow: Crossbows are a variation of a general bow design. Here are the limbs are mounted horizontally. The limb design is either a recurve or a compound but the concept of shooting remains the same. The user manually pulls the string either with a windlass or manually and then locks it into the place.

The string is held through mechanical means in the locked position. The energy that is stored in it limbs is then released with the help of trigger mechanism to launch the loaded arrow.

Sunday, July 23, 2017


It is impossible to reflect on the truly great leadership that has been one of the real blessings of this nation without including the name of George Washington in that list.  In fact, in almost anyone’s “top ten” list of truly great presidents, Washington would almost certainly top the list.  His stature in American history is legendary and the respect Americans have for this their first president borders on adoration of myth.  

The earliest authenticated portrait of George ...
The earliest authenticated portrait of George Washington shows him wearing his colonel's uniform of the Virginia Regiment from the French and Indian War. The portrait was painted about 12 years after Washington's service in that war, and several years before he would reenter military service in the American Revolution. Oil on canvas.
 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

In fact, there is a lot of myth and some humor about our first president that reflects the love people have for this great leader.  From the many quips about his supposed wooden teeth to the thousands of places around the nation that proclaim “George Washington slept here”, to the mythical story of how he threw a silver dollar across the Potomac as a child or his response when he was caught cutting down a cheery tree and responded to the accusation “I cannot tell a lie”, Washington’s myth is strong in the national memory of this great leader.

Washington never set out to become the greatest president of all time or even to be in a position of leadership in the new country he helped to start.  He was the one who originated the concept of a “citizen president” and he believed so strongly in that concept that he refused to run for a third term because his time as citizen leader was over.  This tradition was sustained with little exception until it was codified into part of our constitution in the form of the 22nd amendment.

But before Washington was a great political leader, he showed his tremendous leadership skills on the field of battle.  He learned the art of warfare serving honorably in the French and Indian war and his influence and the respect he had earned during that conflict netted him the title of commander and chief of the American Army when the continental congress created that role in 1775.  Small wonder when he ascended to the presidency some years later, he carried the responsibility of commander and chief with him to the presidency where it continues to reside today even though few of our modern presidents have the military credentials of Washington.

When commanding the troops during the revolutionary war, a famous incident that has been captured beautifully by artists was his decision to cross the Delaware in New Jersey to stage a surprise attack and win the battle against the British.  It was yet another brilliant maneuver that showed his firm grasp of military strategy and only served to add to his fame and reputation as an outstanding leader of men.

After the war, Washington again was interested in retiring from public life but he was never one to turn away when his nation needed him.  And needed him it did as he presided over the Continental Congress to assure the successful drafting of the US Constitution.  Of the many great accomplishments of his life, his ability to provide leadership and inspiration to that assembly to produce this masterpiece of American political ligature would certainly be ranked as perhaps his finest hour.

George Washington was rewarded for his superior leadership skills when he was given the awesome responsibility of serving as the nations first President of the United States.  His wisdom and insight into what the nation needed at east stage of its early development made him the man of the hour for a struggling republic.  Few recognize that one of his greatest contributions to the presidency was recognizing that the nation was torn and weary of war.  So using his considerable influence and negotiating skills, Washington signed a number of important treaties that resulted in years of peace that were needed to turn the country from thoughts of war to thoughts of building a great nation.

Washington never tired of providing leadership for two terms as the first American president and it was he who decided not to serve a third term and returned once again to private life.  But his impact on the nation and the world was profound and long lasting.  It was the kind of nation shaping influence that truly earned him the title associated to him to this day of “father of the nation.”

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Sunday, July 16, 2017

Crewed Motor Yachts – Sail The Seven Seas Without Stress

Crewed motor yachts are yachts that you charter for a vacation without needing to have any sailing experience. With the crewed charters, you don’t have to do any work in handling the yacht or navigating the waters of the location you choose. You can choose to have a luxury charter where you have exquisite surroundings and meals prepared by a chef. Waiters bring you drinks and the members of the crew will provide instructions for water sports if you need any. Crewed motor yachts range in size from yachts that can only take 2 passengers to ones that can take up to 12 or more. 

English: Motor yacht sailing in the bay of Gda...
Motor yacht sailing in the bay of Gdansk in Poland (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

A crewed motor yacht charter is an excellent choice for a family vacation. Children are welcome on these yacht charters, but none of the crew will be assigned to looking after them, even with luxury motor yacht charter. Parents are expected to keep the children entertained and to bring whatever they need for enjoyment aboard with them. Crewed motor yachts are perfectly safe for children, but like any location, you do need to keep them within your sight at all times. 

When you choose a luxury motor yacht charter, you have a personal chef to prepare your meals. However, before you arrive to meet the yacht, you will already have informed the company about your food preferences through the food preference sheet. This sheet also includes a list of beverages for you to choose from, which include soda, wines and alcoholic beverages. The chefs of crewed motor yachts take great care to prepare meals that you will enjoy and only use the freshest ingredients. In the case of fruits and vegetables, the chef of a crewed motor yacht charter may buy foods at the various locations. 

Whether or not you experience any seasickness on crewed yacht charters depends on you. It is probably a good idea to take some form of seasickness medication with you so that you can thoroughly enjoy being on a luxury motor yacht. If you are new to vacationing on a crewed motor yacht charter, be sure to let the crew know so they can choose routes that will cause you less discomfort. If you smoke, you will have to limit your habit to the outside areas of the yacht. Since the interior of the yacht consists of close quarters, yacht charter companies do not permit smoking inside. 

With crewed motor yachts you have comfort and style. You do not have to bring anything with you and all the linens, dishes and utensils are there for you to use. Both the exterior and interior of these yachts are roomy so you can sit back and enjoy the charter in comfort. You don’t have to worry about the wind because the motor will take you to your destination on time. You can enjoy air-conditioning with luxury motor yacht charters, although most of the charter yachts do have this feature included. Depending on the location and type of charter, some crewed charter yachts include scuba diving equipment, kayaks and other equipment you would need to enjoy a variety of water sports.

Sunday, July 9, 2017


There is a lot of exciting stuff going on in the stars above us that make astronomy so much fun.  The truth is the universe is a constantly changing, moving, some would say “living” thing because you just never know what you are going to see on any given night of stargazing.

243 Ida and its moon Dactyl. Dactyl is the fir...
243 Ida and its moon Dactyl. Dactyl is the first satellite of an asteroid to be discovered. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

But of the many celestial phenomenons, there is probably none as exciting as that time you see your first asteroid on the move in the heavens.  To call asteroids the “rock stars” of astronomy is simultaneously a bad joke but an accurate depiction of how astronomy fans view them.  Unlike suns, planets and moons, asteroids are on the move, ever changing and, if they appear in the night sky, exciting and dynamic.

Like rock stars, asteroids have been given their fair share of urban myth and lore.  Many have attributed the extinction of the dinosaurs to the impact of a huge asteroid on the earth.  This theory has some credibility and, if it is true, it evokes some pretty startling images and foreboding fears in the current reining species on earth, the human race.

The fact that asteroids are fast moving space debris only makes their movement and activity more interesting and exciting.  Unlike a moon, planet or star, the odds that an asteroid could hit the earth are entirely reasonable and in fact, there are many documented cases of small asteroids making it through our atmosphere and leaving some pretty impressive craters in the earth’s surface.

Popular culture has happily embraced the idea of an asteroid impact.  The idea has spawned many a science fiction story adding the idea that alien life forms may ride asteroids to our world and start a “war of the worlds” situation.  But by far, the most talked about concept that has captured the imagination and the fears of science fiction fans and the general public is of another asteroid hitting the earth that could wipe out life as allegedly happened to the dinosaurs.  In fact, the movie “Armageddon” was based on this idea and the concept that somehow mankind could avert that catastrophe with technology.

But probably the best way to calm our fears and replace science fiction with science is with understanding and knowledge.  The truth is, there has been a lot of study of asteroid activity and the serious scientific community has gained significant knowledge of these amazing celestial bodies.  A number of probes to asteroids have been conducted which have given us a wealth of information about their composition and how we might predict their behavior.

We now know that the majority of asteroids we get to witness come from an asteroid belt that exists between Mars and Jupiter.  It is from this community of asteroids that many of the notable asteroids emerged.  Scientists have gained significant knowledge about the composition of asteroids and separated them into classes including class S which comes of the part of the belt that is closest to Mars, classes C, D and V which are classified by composition and a class called “Centaurs” whose flight patterns take them closer to Jupiter and Uranus.

Some of the probes NASA has conducted on near flying asteroids have performed some pretty amazing studies of these eccentric celestial bodies.  In 1994 the Galileo probe got within 1000 miles of the asteroid Ida and discovered that Ida actually had its own moon.

Other probes have fired impactors into asteroids and even landed on an asteroid to produce some amazing scientific data for us.  There is much to learn about asteroids in our love of astronomy and that knowledge only makes our enjoyment of seeing them in the cosmos even more exciting.

243 Ida and its moon Dactyl. Dactyl is the first satellite of an asteroid to be discovered. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Thursday, July 6, 2017


If you are planning to shop for a new 50cc pocket bike, you need to know what exactly it is you are searching for, and the right questions to ask before you visit a store, or even before you shop online, if that's your preferred method.  Not paying especially close attention to specific features, or not asking the right questions can result in you buying a 50cc pocket bike that you don't really want, or even worse, can't use. 

1970 Rupp Roadster, photographed in 2008. Original - Photo Wikipedia

First, know exactly what you want your 50cc pocket bike will be used for.  Will it be fun and recreation, or will you be racing?  This decision has to be firmly set in your mind before you go out to make the purchase.  If you will be using the pocket bike for recreational purposes, and you have no intention of racing, you can expect to pay about $400 or a little more.  A very reasonable price.  It's a completely different story if you want to race.  If you eventually plan to race, you may find that you need to pay up to a full $7000 to get what you want.  The price difference shows you pretty quickly why you have to know what you're investing in. 

Generally you will find that any pocket bikes you are looking at were made in one of two places.  There are the pocket bikes that are built in Italy, and there are pocket bikes that are manufactured in China.  The bikes made in Italy are typically among the highest quality bikes.  Higher quality also brings a higher price, but once again what you should be willing to spend on a 50cc pocket bike depends on what you are going to use it for.  If the bike is going to be used solely for recreational purposes, then look at the ones made from China, because the difference is not that large if it is just for fun.  If you're looking to race, buy from Italy.  

Keep in mind pocket bikes are not very comfortable, due to their small size - unless you are very small or a kid.  So, comfort isn't what you need to look for, however, you still need to be comfortable enough to ensure that you have full control of the bike at all times.  Take the bike for a test run, and make sure that your body isn't touching anything that it shouldn't, like the exhaust pipe, and that you're comfortable controlling the bike. 

Talk to the pocket bike dealer to find out what spare parts are available for the bike, and how hard those parts may be to get.  Find out what parts need to be replaced often.  Remember, they sell 50cc pocket bikes for a living, and they are probably the best experts you are going to find.  They will be able to tell you all you need to know about what the bikes need, and what they don't need.  Also, find out if there is a mechanic at the dealership, or in the town, that is capable of making repairs should they be needed, and inquire about warranties as well, the same types of information you would want for a new car.  Make an informed decision based on your needs, and you will find a pocket bike an enjoyable investment.

Sunday, July 2, 2017

3 Chemicals You Need For Your POOL

Every pool owner has to deal with chemicals at some point in time.  When dealing with chemicals, there are a few things that you should know.  No matter how many chemicals you have, you should never attempt to mix them together.  Also, you should never try to add water to dry chemicals of any form.  Last but not least, you should never under any circumstances attempt to handle chemicals with your bare hands.

Rainbow of chemicals
Rainbow of chemicals (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Throughout your time of owning a pool, there are 3 chemicals that you simply must have for your pool.  These chemicals are very important, as you’ll be using them quite frequently.  

1.  Chlorine tablets
Chlorine tablets come in dimensions of either 1 inch or 3 inch.  Chlorine tablets go in your skimmer, normally 3 - 4 tablets at a time.  During the summer, when you run your pool on a daily basis, you’ll need to change out your tablets every week or so.  If you are planning to use 2 skimmers, you’ll need around 8 tablets each week.  You can buy chlorine tablets by the bucket, containing 30 - 50 tablets.  They can tend to get expensive, around $80.00 a bucket, so you’ll need to have plenty of money to invest in your pool during the summer.  

2.  Alkaline powder
Even though chlorine in your water will help to kill off germs, it can also raise the level of acid in your pool.  If you aren’t using enough alkaline, parts that contain metal will begin to corrode, turning your water a misty green color.  On the other hand, if you are using too much alkaline powder, the water will get very cloudy, raising the level of germs in the water - which can lead to very dangerous health issues.  In order to get the right about of alkaline powder in your pool water, you should always use brand name alkaline powders in the amount recommended by the package.

3.  Chlorine powder
Chlorine powder is essential to killing germs such as algae and bacteria that exist in your pool and multiply at very fast speeds.  To kill off these germs, you’ll need to use a large amount of chlorine powder in your water.  Depending on the size of your pool, you may need to use more powder than others.  Chlorine powder can tend to be expensive, so you should always check how much you need before you buy.  This is a chemical you must have, as it’s impossible to keep your pool free of germs without it.  If you have already bought it or if you plan to buy a large supply, you shouldn’t worry as you’ll always have the need for it - meaning that you can never buy enough chlorine powder.

Sunday, June 25, 2017

Tracing One's Roots Via Family History GENEALOGY

The family has always been considered as the strongest force in the society. Known as the most fundamental civilization in the world, it defines the rise and fall of every community and group. In whatever culture, the family has always played a major role in unifying the people of its race. Even in today’s modern era when the limits of socialization are starting to get shattered and the boundaries of communication are slowly disappearing, the family remains basic in every human life. Nobody is so independent and free as to be able to exist without a family.

English: The Genealogy of Abraham according to...
The Genealogy of Abraham according to the Bible (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Today’s world is one which is highly characterized by individualism and eccentricity. Many people are concerned with moving on into the future and the majority is actually living for tomorrow. You may think it just usual for today’s generation to bother less about their origin, about who they really are, where they come from, and issues concerning the past. Ironically, however, there is a growing interest about the search for people’s ancestors. Family history genealogy is gaining more and more attention from those who are after their past life and relatives.

Genealogy can be considered as the science of relationships, simply because this field deals with the tracing of a particular person’s family and relatives, both in the past and in the present, alive or dead. People venture out in the search for their families because of various reasons. Some may want to find a kin who has been lost due to circumstances beyond their control. Concrete examples were those involved in the World War who were forced to leave their homes for safety and spent the rest of their life wandering in foreign lands. Others, on the other hand, engage in this endeavor because of the desire for material possessions and power. Believing that they may be perhaps connected to someone of great influence, they risk the chance for the hope of something good in return.

Genealogy and the search for one’s history may vary in depth. This can be as simple as tracing the names of people related to you, forming a family tree, and indicating to which specific family in your clan a particular person belongs. Or, this can also be as deep as researching and finding out the personal life of each family member that you are able to find. 

Modern technology has made family history genealogy more interesting and has opened a wider door for those people who are serious about their family search. The science of heredity and the study about DNA have made it even more possible for two persons to determine if they belong to the same line of ancestry. Various online sites are also available now to aid people find practically anybody with just the entry of simple facts. There are even computer programs which have been specifically designed for this purpose.  

The search for one’s family, history, and past can be a whole lot of fun. Starting one is easy, and this can be done using different means. The experience is like a treasure hunt that will lead you to unknown and exciting places, and you will never know what you will discover and what treasures await you at the end of your adventure.