Wednesday, December 19, 2018

The Earliest Airports

Kill Devil Hills - Replica of hangar used by Wright Brothers - Photo: Wikipedia
Open spaces such as racetracks, golf courses, polo fields and fairgrounds made for the earliest airfields. These offered flat and smooth surfaces with predictable winds, which were essential for initial gliders and fixed-wing aircraft to take flight.

Together with locations situated on prairies or close to water where winds could be predicted, Kill Devil Hills, North Carolina, were popular choices for early controlled and powered flights.

While Huffman Prairie near Dayton, Ohio entertained the Wright Brothers’ groundbreaking 1905 flights of the Flyer 3 and the Parisian ground of the Champ de Maneoeuvres, Issy-les-Moulineaux witnessed Louis BlĂ©riot’s pre-1910 flight models, neither of these grounds facilitated passenger flights.

The first commissioned airports were in Germany in 1910, which were primarily for the Delag-operated Zeppelin airships. Delag then constructed airship sheds in many German cities situated near rail hubs from 1913. These could handle passengers and maintenance of their airships. Prior to World War I in 1914, close to 34,000 passengers across 1,600 flights had been attended to in these airports.

By 1912, the United States had 20 airports, which were mostly converted from fields and country clubs. In comparison, over the course of World War I, 67 military airfields were established on farms and parks, although with the understanding that most would be reconverted when the war ceased.

There was even a failed attempt at a passenger service in South Florida in 1914, where a waterside building was modified to cater to passengers and aircraft supplies. With the close of World War I, 980 fields were listed as official airfields. Yet, unfriendly golf courses and insufficient racetracks rendered most of them unusable by aircraft.

The first regular airmail flight took place on May 15, 1918, on a polo field situated in downtown Washington, D.C. Dry Nevada lake bottoms, gas stations found on roadways, and even packing crates which housed airplane deliveries, served as “aerial garages”, otherwise known as hangars and maintenance shops. The post-World War I military parade grounds of Le Bourget and Tempelhof were converted into airports.

By 1919, five air stations, including emergency stops, were constructed by the U.S. Postmaster Otto Praeger between New York and Chicago. The Federal Government convinced local Chicago businessmen to contribute to a $15,000 hangar, with potential profits from passenger travel.

In 1920, scheduled international flights became commonplace in the United States with passengers traveling by Aeromarine West Indies Airways between Key West, Florida and Havana, Cuba. With 145 airports by the end of 1920, the airport system slowly began to take shape across the nation.

Early Post Office air stations featured 2 perpendicular runways and a tower with a light beacon of the intensity of 500,000-candlepower. These stations eventually evolved into 2,000-foot by 2,000-foot square designs by 1924, which facilitated multi-directional takeoff and landing regardless of the wind.

Airport fields were typically the size of 70 to 100 acres, with gravel or cinder covered surfaces to assist drainage. The fields were relatively bare, commonly with only one hangar, and bare essentials such as gasoline and oil storage, and telephone connection – all spread out to guard against fire or crash accidents. Most were built on the square postal air station design, although variety came in the form of perpendicular T-shaped strips or rectangles.

From the 1930s prior to World War II, pilots relied on airmarking to fly during the day. To aid navigation and identification of airports, rooftops or hillsides were visually marked. The 50,000-candlepower beacons were used for night flight instead.

The growth of airports began slowly in Canada, but it eventually grew to 77 air harbors by 1930 from an initial 37 in 1922. The Prairie Air Mail Service started to link Winnipeg with Calgary and Edmonton, where its older municipal airport opened its doors in January 1927.

Across the world, airports continued to experience growth. Australia saw 181 public airports with passenger flights and support capabilities by April 1936. This was on top of the 200 designated open landing areas. The Soviet Union had a massive airport linking system, which stretched across Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod, Leningrad, Kiev and Tashkent, north of Afghanistan. The Soviet airline Aeroflot served the world’s biggest domestic air network, with over 500 million passengers catered to by 1975.



Despite the majority of airlines preferring to fly from grass or water, and perhaps protestations from Henry Ford, the first laid hard surfaced runway in the U.S. was publicly unveiled in Newark, New Jersey, on October 1, 1928. It measured 1,600 feet in length. In 1929, Pan Am became the first airline in the U.S. to build its own airport – the Pan American Field. Part of the 116-acre field was rented to its competitor Eastern Airlines. As a precursor to radio communication between airplanes and ground staff, Pan Am used a radio station for Morse code signaling in 1930.

The Berlin Zentralflughafen Tempelhof was widely recognized as one of the world’s largest building in 1938. With simultaneous boarding facilities available for 300 planes and a handling capacity of 300,000 passengers annually, the Tempelhof roof could also accommodate 100,000 visitors watching airplane arrivals and departures. Its model of charging visitors admission fees was duplicated by countless airports trying to cash in on the public’s growing flight fascination.




Tuesday, December 18, 2018

Famous Ford Flops

Ford Edsel -Photo: Pixabay
American automakers sometimes take the brunt of the criticism for producing models that are ugly, useless, or even downright dangerous. Ford has had its share of beasts through the years in addition to several winners including the current Mustang for which demand cannot be met. For the fun of it let’s take a look at some of the Ford models that have been derided down through the years.

Model T – What?! How can the car that introduced mass production make the list? Well, the car was fine, but Mr. Henry Ford’s statement, “…you can have any color you want as long as it is black” has been attributed with the rise of General Motors [who gave its customers a choice in colors] which eventually dethroned Ford as the top automaker in the world. No, the Model T was fine, but Mr. Ford’s marketing strategy was not.

Edsel – In September 1957, Ford launched a new division – Edsel – and introduced to America one of the weirdest looking cars. Sporting a “horse-collar” shaped grille – some equated it with a toilet seat – the Edsel line was hyped by Ford and rejected by consumers wholeheartedly. Expecting to build 200,000 Edsels in its first year of production, only 63,000 were built. Other “radical” aspects of the Edsel included a “floating” speedometer that glowed upon reaching a particular speed and an awkward push button transmission with controls attached to the hub of the steering wheel. Even with a quick makeover completed in time for the next model year, the Edsel limped along only to be pulled one month after the third model year vehicles were released.

Pinto – Hey, even I owned one! With a 2.3L inline four-cylinder paired with a 4-speed manny tranny, the Pinto was Ford’s answer during the 1970s to the onslaught of Japanese cars flooding the market. The compact rear-wheel-drive coupe, three-door hatchback, or wagon sold fairly well until disaster hit: the revelation that the Pinto’s gas tank was capable of exploding during a rear impact scared buyers away. Mercifully pulled after the 1980 model year; replaced by the popular Escort.



Mustang II – Ford tarnished the Mustang name during the 1970s with this forgettable and ugly model. Resembling a bloated and stretched Pinto, the Mustang II was weak, poorly made, and a terrible competitor against its arch-rival, the Camaro. All was forgiven by the early 1980s with the return of a newly designed Mustang. Today’s Mustang, on the other hand, is a sold-out success story as it took its styling cues from a Mustang of another era: the fastback cars of the late 1960s and early 1970s.

Before you point your finger at Ford, don’t forget to recall some truly forgettable models, foreign and domestic. The Toyota Van was panned for its ugly styling and for having an engine that had to be dropped from the engine bay in order to do a tune-up; the Chevy Vega – a Pinto wannabe; AMC’s Pacer – the Jetson’s car; the Suzuki Samurai and Isuzu Rodeo – flip over specialists; the Yugo – a thinly redone 1960s era Fiat; and countless other cars not worth the mention. You hope that automakers learn from their mistakes, but don’t count on it. Maybe in another generation, we will see a truly forgettable Ford show up, but for now, there isn’t one in the lineup... hooray for that!






Monday, December 17, 2018

Paintball Basics

Photo: Pixabay
Paintball is a safe, simple yet challenging and strategic sport that is played usually by two teams, each with at least two players. Adults and kids alike enjoy this sport as they often refer to it as an advanced or improvised game of tag.

Tournaments attract many spectators of all ages, as it is a very exciting game to watch. 

Paintball games are of various types, however, the most popular game often played is called "capture the flag". The object or the goal of this game is for teams to advance to the opponent’s base, move the other team’s flag to its destined location, at the same time guarding your own flag.

The paintball field has many obstacles such as tires, forts, old cars, hay and the newest are “inflatables” that are constructed as a refuge for team players; making the game all the more exciting, as if participating in an actual game of war in videos.  

When one is hit, it can hurt briefly and at times give players bruises.  Players are typically required to be in long sleeves shirt and pants, making sure that the colour is not identical as that of the judge and complete paintball gear such as mask, helmet and goggles for safety.

The sport of paintball has a distinct and accurate set of rules that are strictly followed. The producer of the tournament is the absolute authority in regard to either an alteration or addition to the rules; marshals oversee the event, and their decision is always final. No dispute on the paintball field is accommodated or entertained. 

A military approach to paintball is useless, as that knowledge is recognized and understood by the teams. A team’s tactic should be carefully planned; your team’s line of attack will not be known by the opposing team, and there should be a quick switch of plans in case something goes wrong.



There must be a lot of teamwork involved, as everyone moves through the field. As a team member moves, there should be others to guard and keep watch and give off covering shots when necessary.  A team that moves together with a common objective will have a great chance of succeeding in this game.

Communication in the field is also very important.  A team-mate can shout the position of the opponent. The moment that a player is seen, the game for that player is up; so there is no reason for you to keep quiet; instead, inform the others the location of the enemy. 

The excitement of this game concludes when you are seen and eliminated - a situation that all team players struggle to avoid.





Sunday, December 16, 2018

MARINE ELECTRONICS

Photo: Wikimedia

Autopilots The first self-steering gear was introduced in the 1920s to control model yachts but it was not until 1948 that the principle was applied to full-scale yachts. Standing at the helm for lengthy periods, monitoring instruments and keeping a good lookout can be very tiring. An autopilot relieves the helmsman from steering the correct course leaving him free to maintain a proper watch. The autopilot can be set to either steer a compass course or a course relative to the wind. A fluxgate compass or electronic wind indicator feeds information to a microprocessor which then makes the necessary rudder movements to return the vessel to it's required course. The mechanical power is applied to the rudder by either electric linear activators, hydraulic pumps or rotary drives. GPS/Chart
plotters can be used to input navigational instructions to the autopilot.

Battery Chargers will keep batteries fully charged thereby extending their working life.

Chart Plotters Typically a chart plotter consists of an antenna, mounted high on the boat, to track GPS signals and a display unit sited either at the at the navigation station or the helm of the vessel. The vessels position is sent from the antenna to the display unit which in turn shows it graphically on the chart. The Chart itself will look similar to its paper equivalent and show depth, land mass, navigational aids such as buoys and potential dangers in the form of wrecks and obstructions. The user can add waypoints to the chart and zoom in and out of the display. Chart plotters can be connected to drive an autopilot and/or send GPS data to a fish finder or radar. They can also interface with a laptop enabling complex passage planning to be done away from the boat and then entered into the chart plotter after arriving at the boat.

Magnetic Transmitting Compasses work like traditional compasses using magnets to determine the vessels orientation to the earth's magnetic field they then transmit the boats heading to an electronic display. They make steering easier than with conventional compasses because they display steadier headings and do not suffer from the "lag" that occurs when making a turn. They can interface with chart plotters, autopilots and radar. Fluxgate Compasses consist of two pieces of readily saturated magnetic material with coils wound around them in opposing directions. AC current is passed through the coils and the material is saturated in one direction and then the other. The earth's magnetic field affects slightly the time at which saturation occurs, earlier in one coil and later in the other. The difference is then calculated giving an output proportional to the earth's magnetic field. They are accurate to 0.1 of a degree. Their output can be displayed digitally to the helmsman or they can interface with autopilots, chart plotters and radar.

Echo Sounders work on the same principle as sonar. A transducer emits a narrow beam of high-frequency sound. This is reflected by any solid objects and the time between transmission and receipt of the echo is measured. The speed of sound through water is known and so the range or distance to the seabed can be calculated. That is then displayed in meters. Forward-Looking Sonar (FLS) enables you to see the underwater hazards before you're actually on top of them. A typical range for an FLS is 150 meters.

An Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB) is a piece of equipment designed to float free of a vessel in distress. It then sends a radio signal that can be detected by Search and Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking (SARSAT) satellites. They relay a message to a ground station that in turn can instigate a search and rescue operation.

Fish Finders use the same technology as sonar. A narrow beam of high-frequency sound is transmitted by a transducer, this is reflected by solid objects such as the seabed. By developing this technology fishfinders provide displays that show where the fish are and they can differentiate between baitfish and larger species

Global Positioning System (GPS Receivers) - This system was originally designed for military purposes and is owned and operated by the United States Department of Defence. 24 satellites are arranged in a "birdcage" around the globe, they are positioned in such a way that at any place on the earth's surface a direct line of sight can be established to a minimum of 4 satellites. A fix is obtained by measuring accurately the distance between a satellite and the GPS receiver at a precise time. Because the exact position of the satellite is known, these distances provide position lines which are converted by a microprocessor within the GPS receiver to readouts of latitude and longitude.

The log is used to measure the boats speed through the water. A paddle wheel or impeller, mounted below the waterline is turned by the flow of water, this generates electrical impulses that are fed to a microprocessor that displays both speed and distance run.



Inverters - On most boats today you will find domestic equipment of one sort or another. For onboard entertainment, there are televisions and stereo systems. With the popularity of chart plotters comes the PC or laptop. Maintenance often requires the use of power tools. Liveaboards might have a washing machine, dishwasher or microwave. Can take 12v, 24v or 48v supply and convert it to a stable 110 v or 220v AC supply.

Navtex can perhaps best be described as a continuously updated telex service providing navigation and weather information within specified areas. An onboard receiver, tuned to 518kHz, the worldwide Navtex frequency, if left turned on will either print out or display the latest messages sent from a local station. The service is available up to 400 miles from the coast.

Radar enables you to see what otherwise would be invisible. They offer the greatest benefit at night and in fog or rain and are of particular value when close to shore or in busy shipping lanes. They consist of an antenna and a display. The antenna sends out a stream of RF energy which is reflected back off hard objects. When this energy is bounced back it is converted to a signal which displayed to the user. The antenna rotates every few seconds, the display continuously calculates the direction of the antenna and so a precise bearing to the target is calculated. The time is measured for the energy to be reflected and so the distance of the target is also displayed.

Satellite Phones consist of an antenna, a modem and a normal handset. They are powered by an iridium battery. Their range is anywhere covered by in Inmarsat Mini-M satellite. Voice, fax, email and data can be transmitted.

Satellite TV requires an antenna and of course a television. Reception is available within a "footprint" which is based on EIRP (Effective Isotropic Radiated Power) of a transmitting satellite. The EUTELSAT together with the two ASTRA satellites covers Europe. NILESAT and the two ARABSATs cover Africa and the Middle East. Good coverage is also available in North, Central and Southern America.

SSB Radio has a range of several thousand miles. You will need an FFC license or the equivalent in whichever country you plan to operate it. Power consumption is a consideration. Up to 100 Watts may be required for transmission. SSB radio requires several items of equipment. A transceiver capable of SSB operation, An antenna, this must be 8 metres long and in practice, most boats use a backstay or shroud for the purpose having fitted the necessary insulators. An antenna tuner matched to the transceiver model. If you want to send an email you will also need and radio modem and computer.

VHF Radio The power required to transmit is minimal, all sets have the option of transmitting on either 1 Watt or 25 Watts and the lower power should be used whenever possible. Unlike telephones that allow you to both talks and hear at the same time, most VHF sets require you to press a transmit button prior to talking. This is known as simplex. Duplex sets are available but are much more expensive. VHF radio waves travel in straight lines so the aerial should be mounted as high as possible, preferably at the masthead.





Friday, December 14, 2018

The Star of Bethlehem Explained

The Adoration of the Magi (circa 1305) by Giot...
The Adoration of the Magi (circa 1305) by Giotto, purportedly depicting Halley. 
(Photo credit: Wikipedia)
For centuries astronomers have speculated about the famous Star of Bethlehem, which the three Magi (the three wise men/the three kings) followed to the place of Christ's birth. Of course, the star may defy scientific explanation altogether, and be viewed as a miracle. Nevertheless, various astronomical theories have been proposed, including that the star may have been a comet, or a supernova (an exploding star), or a "planetary conjunction" (a gathering of planets in one part of the sky). In this column, we'll examine two of today's most popular theories, both of which hold that the planet Jupiter played a key role.

First, though, it's useful to recall what the Bible says about the most famous star in history:

"After Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, during the time of King Herod, Magi from the east came to Jerusalem and asked, "Where is the one who has been born king of the Jews? We saw his star when it rose and have come to worship him." When King Herod heard this he was disturbed, and all Jerusalem with him. When he had called together all the people's chief priests and teachers of the law, he asked them where the Messiah was to be born. "In Bethlehem in Judea," they replied, "for this is what the prophet has written: "'But you, Bethlehem, in the land of Judah, are by no means least among the rulers of Judah; for out of you will come to a ruler who will shepherd my people Israel."

Then Herod called the Magi secretly and found out from them the exact time the star had appeared. He sent them to Bethlehem and said, "Go and search carefully for the child. As soon as you find him, report to me, so that I too may go and worship him." After they had heard the king, they went on their way, and the star they had seen when it rose went ahead of them until it stopped over the place where the child was. When they saw the star, they were overjoyed. On coming to the house, they saw the child with his mother Mary, and they bowed down and worshipped him. Then they opened their treasures and presented him with gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh. And having been warned in a dream not to go back to Herod, they returned to their country by another route." Matthew 2:1-12

If you Google "Star of Bethlehem," the Web site of a best selling DVD, The Star of Bethlehem, ranks at the very top. The DVD features American attorney, Sunday school teacher, and amateur astronomer Rick Larson, who has conducted extensive research into the scientific, historical and theological aspects of the Star of Bethlehem.

After a careful review of scripture, Larson identifies nine characteristics of the star that, he believes, any scientific theory of the star must meet in order to be compliant with Christian belief. For example, we can see from Matthew 2:1-12 that the star signified the birth of a king, that it was associated with the Jewish nation, and that, "it stopped over the place where the child was" - Bethlehem.

Larson then draws on his study of ancient history to address the all-important issue of the year that King Herod died. According to Matthew 2, after the birth of Jesus, an angel appeared to Joseph in a dream, urging Joseph to flee Israel and take Mary and the infant Jesus to Egypt so as to avoid the wrath of Herod, who had issued orders that all male children in his realm under the age of two be executed. Later in Matthew 2, an angel informs Joseph that Herod has died and that it is safe to return to Israel. So the argument goes that we should subtract two years from the year of Herod's death to estimate the year Jesus was born. Knowing Jesus' estimated year of birth allows astronomers to run computer simulations of the positions of the stars and planets as they appeared in the night sky during the approximate time frame of Jesus' birth.

Most historians and biblical scholars put Herod's death at around the year 4 BC, meaning Jesus would have been born sometime around 6 BC. But Larson points to recent historical research arguing that Herod died in 1 BC, which would place Jesus' birth year around 3 BC.

Using modern astronomical software, Larson then runs computer simulations of the night sky over the Middle East in 3 and 2 BC and reaches two remarkable results - both involving the planet Jupiter.

Viewing the night sky from Jerusalem in mid-September of 3 BC, an observer could see Jupiter, known as the "King Planet" (from classical mythology) in conjunction with (i.e., close to) the star "Regulus," known as the "King Star. Furthermore, Regulus is in the constellation (area of the night sky) "Leo," which represents a lion, which was the symbol of Judah.

Furthermore, Larson notes, the planets in the night sky move relative to the 'fixed' stars: If you note the position of, say, Jupiter relative to stars such as Regulus from night to night, then you'll note that Jupiter generally moves eastward across successive night skies. However, occasionally, Jupiter will seemingly halt its eastward movement, and begin moving westward across successive night skies. (This is an optical effect - called "retrograde motion" - resulting from the fact that Earth's orbit around the sun lies within Jupiter's orbit around the sun. Jupiter, Saturn and other planets outside Earth's orbit demonstrate the same retrograde motion as we view those planets from Earth, which itself is in motion in its orbit about the sun. Our planet's orbital motion combined with the orbital motions of the outer planets cause the retrograde motion optical effect.) As Jupiter switches from moving eastward to moving westward (or vice versa), Jupiter appears to be stationary relative to the stars. In this way, Jupiter appeared to stop "over the place where the child was," as we read in Matthew 2.

But, Larson argues, this conjunction of Leo with Regulus may have marked the conception of Jesus. If we run the computer simulation of Jerusalem's night sky forward nine months into June of 2 BC, we find that Jupiter and the planet Venus - two of the brightest planets in the night sky - come into extremely close conjunction, so much so that the two planets appear together as one, very bright 'star' in the night sky!

So the conjunction of Jupiter with Regulus in 3 BC, and/or the conjunction of Jupiter with Venus nine months later in 2 BC, may very well have been the star the Magi followed.

If we return to the Google search results for "Star of Bethlehem," we find the Web site of professional astronomer Michael Molnar, who takes a different approach to the star of Bethlehem. In his book, The Star of Bethlehem: The Legacy of the Magi, Molnar explores not only the Biblical account of the star but also the point of view of the Magi, whom Molnar argues were astrologers/astronomers: In the ancient Roman world, astrology and astronomy were indistinguishable. The Magi were held in high esteem in Roman culture and were considered to be very knowledgeable, indeed, wise men.

Molnar, who does not believe in astrology, nevertheless has extensively researched the astrological beliefs prevalent in the Roman world. He argues that modern astronomers who think about the Star of Bethlehem make a mistake by focusing on what spectacular displays may have appeared in the night sky around the time of Jesus' birth, such as the appearance of a very bright star. The focus on amazing heavenly displays is a bias of relatively modern astronomers, Molnar argues. The Magi of ancient Rome, Molnar explains, were primarily concerned with the logic of their astrological system, which placed primary emphasis on the locations and arrangements of the planets in the night sky - the sequence of planets in the night sky, what constellations they were in, how far above the horizon they appeared at sunrise, etc.

So, for example, the fact that Jupiter and Venus were so close to one another that they appeared as one, very bright star would not necessarily be significant to the Magi. Rather, the Magi would be much more interested in knowing whether Jupiter was to the east of Venus or to the west of Venus, the constellation(s) in which the two planets were located, and how high above the horizon the two planets appeared at sunrise.



Accepting the consensus view of most scholars that Herod likely died in 4 BC, Molnar considers the positions of the planets in the night sky two years earlier - in 6 BC - and finds a particular arrangement of the planets Jupiter, Saturn, Venus, Mars and Mercury, together with the Moon and Sun, that would have been of great astrological significance to the Magi, indicating that a king was being born. Furthermore, the centring of this particular planetary arrangement in and around the constellation Aries was significant, in part because in Roman-era astrology Aries was the sign of Judea. So to the Magi, the arrangement of the stars and planets in 6 BC led them to believe that a great king was born in Judea. Moreover, we should bear in mind Jupiter's retrograde motion, as well as the spirit of revolution in the air at the time - the notion that a messiah would soon lead the Jewish people in revolt against the Roman Empire. All of these factors combined, then, would naturally have induced the Magi to travel to Jerusalem - the capitol city of Judea - to inquire as to the whereabouts of the newborn king.

So whether we take the more Biblically-oriented analysis of Larson or the more astrologically-oriented analysis of Molnar, we find compelling scenarios that support the notion that the Star of Bethlehem was a real, historical event.

    Richard Pickering is an astronomer for Name A Star Live, which lets you express your feelings in a romantic, meaningful way by 'naming a star' for a loved one. While no star-naming service can change the scientific designations of stars, only Name A Star Live makes it real by providing you: Virtual Planetarium astronomy software; an opportunity to view your star live using an online telescope; and the launch of your star name into space!
    Article Source: EzineArticles



Thursday, December 13, 2018

All About Brain Anatomy

Brain Anatomy - Photo: Wikimedia
The brain is a fascinating and complex unit of our anatomy. The brain is responsible for so many things. It stores our short term and long term memories. The ability to learn is from our brain as well. Our emotions and triggers are stored in our brain. The brain is a source of information on everything we do and about who we are. 

The anatomy of the brain shows us just how complex it truly is. There is so much about brain science and the medical field have not yet uncovered. However, there is a great deal we have learned about the brain by studying the physical features of it. We have also learned from the neurological aspects of the brain. We have the ability to perform brain surgery and remove tumours as well as install plates for those who have neurological damage. This is a fascinating area of science and medicine that can be overwhelming to learn about in detail.

There are six main areas of the brain to learn about. The parietal lobe helps us understand written language as well as communicate with others. Our sensory cortex is located here, controlling the sensations we get with touching and amounts of pressure. This is also an area of judgment for size, weight and distance.

The occipital lobe is located at the rear of the brain. This is where visual information is processed. It helps users to recognize shapes and colours. The cerebellum helps us with coordination including balance and muscle movement that help you walk, talk, eat, and routine tasks involved in caring for ourselves. 

The brainstem is a very important part of the brain. It is connected to the spinal cord. This portion of the brain helps with required body functions including breathing, digesting, the regulation of the heart rate, blood pressure and being alert while awake. 

The temporal lobe is how we smell. This is surprising information for most of us who think only the nose is responsible for our sense of smell. This region is also used for short-term memory processing. 



The frontal lobe is a very important portion of the brain. It is responsible for planning, organizing, problem-solving, paying attention to details, behaviour, and emotions. This is the area of our brain we use the most in our daily routines and decisions.

Since the brain performs so many features, it is obvious why a brain injury can be so serious. It can result in death if areas such as the brainstem are affected. Brain injuries can affect how other areas of the body are able to function. Ironically, we only use about 10% of our brain!






Wednesday, December 12, 2018

Okanagan Mountain Range Ski Vacations


Okanagan is a mountain range that runs through valleys close to three mountain ranges. During the summer this is the perfect place to do some camping,  but when winter hits you will have great skiing weather and conditions. There are small resorts that are scattered throughout the area. The climate here will make for great skiing down the slopes and through the trails.

These scattered resorts are very quiet and peaceful. Lifts are available, but they are limited to specific times and dates. These resorts have great skiing around them, even though they are small. This area of mountains offers the most consistent weather conditions, and the resort offers to lodge for everyone that cares to stay - at a reasonable price. 

The mountain ranges offer different trails and skill levels, but most of all they provide you with the skiing vacation of your dreams. During the winter, temperatures in the Okanogan range often drop to zero degrees. The items you bring will need to keep you warm at all times and safe no matter which trail you may choose to ski.