Tuesday, May 29, 2018

Galileo's Telescope

Galileo Galilei showing the Doge of Venice how to use the telescope - Photo: Wikimedia
Rumors of a Dutchman creating a device that would bring objects closer so you could see them more clearly reached Galileo in 1609.  He started using the device after he refined it to a 10-power telescope and made some amazing discoveries with it.  In 1610, he looked around Jupiter to find three satellites all in a straight line.  When he looked back, they were in all directions.  He surmised they were orbiting Jupiter and that, if this were true, then the Earth wasn't the center of the universe.  This theory went against what the church taught.  

The church believed Galileo to be quite wrong.  They said everything he could see in his new telescopic device went against everything the Bible said.  Galileo argued that even the interpreters of the Bible could have made a mistake in the interpretation.  He was accused of heresy, but proclaimed innocent and told not to teach any of the Copernican belief system.

Unbeknownst to the church, Galileo continued to study Jupiter and the movements of its moons.  He also started working on a paper about the ocean's tides.  He was brought before the court for trying to teach the Copernican system after being told not to.  He was placed under house arrest and until his death in 1642, he investigated even more areas of science.  

He made even more fascinating discoveries with his telescope.  He found there companion stars next to Saturn which was actually the edges of the rings that encircle the planet.  He found spots on the sun's surface and watched Venus go through its many phases from a planet down to a sliver of light.

He published his findings in a book called “The Starry Messenger” in 1610.  People were quite excited about some of the theories found in the book.  Imagine finding for the first time that the Earth was round, and not flat.  What would you think?

Thursday, May 24, 2018

The History of Supercross Motorcycle Racing

Motorcycle Racing - Photo: Pxhere
Motorcycle racing evolved almost as soon as motorcycles were available for sale.  However, that type of motorcycle racing is different from most of the races that take place today. In the past, motorcycle racing was like most other forms of racing. It often took place on flat tracks. Motorcycle racing first began on dirt tracks. After a time, those dirt tacks became asphalt tracks. When you think about it, in a way, motorcycle racing has somewhat returned to its roots.

Although motorcycle races have changed in the past, it is important to know that those old racing styles still exist today.  All across the country, the world for that matter, motorcycle racing takes place on all different racing surfaces. Flat track racing still exists today and it is still fairly popular; however, racers, as well as fans wanted something more. They wanted excitement; thus, supercross motorcycle racing was born.

Supercross motorcycle racing is off-road racing at its best.  Supercross drivers not only race off-road bikes, but they race on man-made tracks. These man-made tracks are, in a way, like obstacles courses. The courses are filled with turns, jumps, and small hills that make for some exciting racing.  Like most other forms of racing, including supercross racing, the goal is to finish in first place.  However, with supercross racing, that is easier said than done.  With a fairly large number of drivers on one rough course, it is sometimes even difficult to make it to the finish line.

When it comes to the history of supercross motorcycle racing, it is often difficult to pinpoint its exact date of birth.  Supercross racing is a variation of motocross racing. The only difference between the two is that motocross races tend to take place outdoors, while supercross racing events are mostly held indoors.  In the early seventies, motocross racing started taking the world and racing fans by storm. The only problem with motocross racing was that it was held outdoors, often in rural areas. This largely limited the number of fans who could enjoy a motocross event; therefore, the switch was made to indoors.  

The first supercross racing event was held in the Los Angeles Coliseum.  Although, at the time, it was not officially known as supercross racing.  A comparison was made by the racing promoter.  That comparison was between motocross and the Superbowl; for that reason, the supercross name was used.  Supercross and motocross still exist today.  While it is now easier to separate the two, it was difficult to do when supercross racing was first developed. That was why the name supercross was so popular and widely used.  

Supercross motorcycle racing is most well-known on a professional level. Since its development, racing teams and circuits have been developed. These racing teams are similar to the teams found in NASCAR, as well as the racing circuit.  Professional supercross racers tend to travel the country, racing in various indoor venues.  In addition to professional supercross motorcycle racing, amateur supercross racing is also popular, but mostly on a local level.  
Although most amateur or local supercross motorcycle racing events can be classified as motocross, due to being held outdoors, many have bared the supercross racing name.  While many local courses are held outdoors, there are also local indoor courses as well.  Like many other forms of local racing, these indoor supercross racing events tend to take place on a weekly or bi-weekly basis.  These constant race schedules are great for local fans, who never have to worry about missing a race or worry about having to travel to follow their favourite sport.

One of the reasons why supercross motorcycle racing has increased in popularity, aside from its action-packed events, is because most professional events are televised.  Even locally run, amateur supercross races have benefited from these lived televised events, even though they are not the ones being broadcasted on television.  As previously mentioned, supercross racing events take place all over the country; however, they are only available in limited areas.  For this reason, supercross fans have turned to local tracks to get their racing fixes.

Free Wood Working Plans

Woodworking - Photo: Flickr
Can give an idea of how to design a particular woodworking product. They also give information about the material that has to be used in making a certain product.

A wide range of free woodworking plans is available on the internet. Indeed you will get valuable information from free woodworking plans that can be used for home renovation purposes. On some websites, amateur woodworkers share their experience, tips, and ideas that make up for great free woodworking plans. Some free woodworking plans that are commonly used are bookcase plans, bed plans, shed plans, workbench plans and entertainment center plans

Cherry Bookshelf plans: It consists of 13 pieces that are screwed and dadoed together. The shaping and joinery are done with the help of drill press and a table saw. The bookshelf has slats and pyramid top posts. Cherry wood is used as it is lighter. You can use other types of wood such as quarter-sawed white oak. For building this bookcase you require screws, screw hole plugs, slates, and shelves. The dimensions of these items will differ according to your requirements.

Break Down Chair Plans: This high backed chair and has no wedges or pegs. You can easily make 2 chairs out of 4’x8’ sheet of good quality plywood. It is very easy to make these chairs.

Antiqued Table plan: Clear pine is used to make this antiqued beauty.  Tools that are required to make this table are trim saw or handsaw, bits, and drill, spray bottles, wet rag, and belt or orbital sander. Materials that are required to make this table include legs, apron, fastening strips and table top. You also require screw and washer, shellac and carpenter’s glue and 8 hanger bolts. Depending on the size of table you want, you should select the dimensions.

Circular Kitchen Table Plan: Solid black walnut wood is used to make this kitchen table. The tabletop which has a radius of 2 feet is a perfect circle. The circular top is on a pedestal base which is constructed using laminated bridle joints. The warmth of this wood enhances as tung oil and polyurethane are used for protecting the finish. The contemporary design of this antique table is much more attractive than formal dining style. Jointer, jigsaw, hand router and some other tools are required to make this piece.

Mahogany bed plan: This ideal masterpiece is ideal for any bedroom décor. The bed is made from solid mahogany. The bed with its contemporary style has convenient rail hangers A series of slats are required for supporting the bed. A box spring is not required once you use these slats. Depending on the thickness and length of the mattresses the dimensions of the bed will vary. The dimensions should be such that it should be able to handle queen size mattresses. The bed is designed in such a way that you can disassemble it easily.

Jewelry Box plans: This elegant case has a simple design. If there are some beautiful small wooden boards in your house then you can make this box on your own. It won’t take you long to build this attractive box. This can indeed be a perfect last minute gift for a friend.

Wednesday, May 23, 2018

Selecting A HORSE - Choose The Breed Carefully

English: "Golden girl" – Horses (unk...
"Golden girl"  (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Owning a horse is a huge responsibility. Just like owning any pet, you should put a great deal of thought and consideration before you decide to purchase an equine. Since most individuals will have to house horses off their property, you should first consider finding a suitable stable before you purchase a horse. Also, consider your wants and needs.

If you or your stable has limited space, you might not want to consider a sizable draft horse like a Clydesdale. However, if you are in need of a large horse to do a great deal of work pulling wagons, you should consider breeds other than Shetlands. There are a great number of breeds, each with a different pro and con. After carefully reviewing each breed, you are sure to find the exact type of horse to fit your needs and your lifestyle.

Ask yourself what you are looking for in a horse. Do you want a horse that you can show? Do you want a horse for work purposes? Do you want a horse to jump or ride competitively? Do you want a horse to race? Do you want a horse to ride on trails or one that is compatible with children? After you determine why you want a horse (and the answer should be better than "just because"), you can set out determining what breed is best for you. Keep in mind, even though the breed might fit everything you want, each horse will have a different personality. Before you run out and buy the first horse in your desired breed, take a careful look at the specific horse in question. 

If you are interested in showing a horse for its beauty and grace, an Arabian horse is probably your best bet. These beautiful creatures are well-liked on the show circuit and enjoy being fussed and fawned over. For those daring riders who want a horse for jump training, the strong-legged Thoroughbred may be the perfect fit. These gentle giants are rugged enough to withstand the abuse of jumping but are agile enough to soar over the highest gates. If you would rather have a rough-and-tumble horse perfect for uneven trail rides, the American Quarter Horse should be your top pick. These famous horses are often used in competitive Western riding events, including the heart-pumping barrel racing. 

American Quarter Horses are perfect for the intense training required for competitive racing, but also have the sure-footed step necessary for making the quick turns and negotiating rocky terrain. A Tennessee Walking Horse or Mountain Horse is the perfect fit for the horse owners who want to go on quiet rides. The gentle gait of these beautiful creatures gives these horses the best ride over even terrain. Finally, if you are looking a horse for a child, consider a smaller breed like the Icelandic. The shorter stature better fits the proportion of a child, and their smooth gait and easy-going attitude will prevent much bumping and jostling. 

Whatever your choice of breed, carefully consider its pros and cons. Even though you may have your heart set on one specific breed, if it will not meet your needs, you should carefully rethink your choice. A horse is a huge responsibility and you cannot simply return the magnificent creature because you did not seriously research all your options and hastily chose a horse that will not fit into your lifestyle.

© Copyright 2005 by Lynn Walls. All rights reserved.

Monday, May 21, 2018

A Look At The History Of Airbrush Art

Airbrush Arts - Photo: Flickr
Airbrush art is a popular form of painting various designs on various types of surfaces. Everything from skin, clothing, canvas, and automobiles are being used to show fantastic works of art using airbrushing. Motorcycles and building murals are also a target for an artist to show off their creativity with airbrush art. 

The history of airbrush art is just as fascinating as the creative designs that artists are using airbrushing for. Experts believe that a primitive form of airbrush art was used by ancient civilizations. The method believed to be used in this primitive form of airbrush art was the use of a hollow bone in which to spray the paint out of by blowing through it. While this is a very primitive method compared to modern day forms of airbrushing, it does still work. Take a look at children's airbrush art kits that require the child to blow through one end of the tube to create the airbrushed art. Now ancient forms of airbrush art have bled over to modern day children's crafts.

In 1893 the world has seen a more modernized version of airbrushing when Charles Burdick patents the first airbrush device. This device would be used for retouching photographs until around 1920. 

During the 1930s airbrush increased when advertisement agencies jumped on the bandwagon to create an advertisement for new products. Soon airbrushing would be used to paint Pin-Up girls on to the American planes during WWII. This is where airbrushing started showing up in the more modern world in the form of art. 

In the 1940 Walt Disney would show the world a new use for airbrush art. Walt Disney would take airbrush art to the animated screen. The backgrounds for Walt Disney's animated movies were created using airbrushing. Airbrushing allowed them to create shadows and lighting tricks to achieve a more realistic looking background. While even this seems primitive compared to what we can do with animated movies as well as for airbrush art, this method did pave the way for both the improvement on animation and airbrush art.

The 1960s brought us even closer to what we now know we can do with airbrushing. Airbrush art in the 1960s made its way into the music world. Album covers were done using airbrush art to create the whole hippy style images. The wild psychedelic artwork that was popular with that era was done thanks to the use of airbrushing. Tie-dyed looks and large hippy flowers and even the peace signs were making their way onto vehicles during this era. Airbrushing the artwork on took a lot of time out of painting the vehicles overdoing the designs by hand. Thus airbrush art was being experimented with on vehicles at this point. 

The way we use airbrushing now to create art surely has come along way from the primitive methods used by our ancestors and even our parents. Nowadays we can see airbrush art almost everywhere on almost every type of surface. The only limits nowadays with airbrush art rests in the limits of the individual artist.

Sunday, May 20, 2018

2006 BMW Sports Cars

BMW Sports Car  - Photo: Pixabay
BMW or Bayerische Motoren Werke has long been conceived all over the world as "The Ultimate Driving Machine." The company has proven this statement true in the past years.

The current models of BMW sports car will attest to that statement.

Here are some of the current models of BMW, with their corresponding characteristics.

-BMW M3 2006

Engine specifications:

BMW M3 has an in-line, 3.2-liter capacity engine with a compression ratio of 11.5. It has four valves per cylinder. It promises to deliver 248 KW power and 333 HP at 7900 rpm (SAE).

Brake Features:

The car has electronic brake distribution, brake assist system, four disk brakes with ventilated disks, cornering brake control, and four-wheel ABS.

Handling Features:

BMW M3 is equipped with stability control, immobilizer and limited slip differential at the rear. The ABS and engine management control the electronic traction.

Aerodynamics Exterior features:

The car has 0.35 drag coefficient, body side moldings, and 3771 lbs. curb weight.

-BMW M5 2006

Engine specifications:

The BMW M5 2006 car has a V10 and 3.2-liter capacity engine with a compression ratio of 12.  It has four valves per cylinder. It promises to deliver 373 KW of power and 500 HP at 7750 rpm (SAE).

Brake Features:

The car has brake assist system, four disk brakes with ventilated disks, electronic brake distribution, cornering brake control, and four-wheel ABS.

Handling Features:

The BMW M5 is equipped with stability control, immobilizer and limited slip differential at the rear. The ABS and engine management control the electronic traction. It is also equipped with a responsive suspension.

Aerodynamics Exterior features:

The car has 0.31 drag coefficient and 4012 lbs. curb weight.

-BMW 6-Series

Engine specifications:

The BMW M5 2006 has a V8, 4.8-liter capacity engine with a compression ratio of 10.5. It has four valves per cylinder. It promises to deliver 268 KW power and 360 HP at 6300 rpm (SAE).

Brake Features

The car has electronic brake distribution, brake assist system, four disk brakes with ventilated disks, cornering brake control, and four-wheel ABS.

Handling Features:

BMW M3 car is equipped with stability control, immobilizer and limited slip differential at the rear. The ABS and engine management control the electronic traction. It is also equipped with an adjustable responsive suspension.

Aerodynamics Exterior features:

The car has 0.3 drag coefficient and 3814 lbs. curb weight.

With all the features these cars have, BMW truly is the "Ultimate Driving Machine."

Saturday, May 19, 2018


Nanotechnology - Photo: Wikimedia
As the horizons of technology expand, the real world is shrinking into a Global Village; Nanotechnology is the new area of interest in technology.

Nanotechnology is an umbrella term that covers many areas of research dealing with objects that are measured in nanometers or billionth of a meter. It is a hybrid science combining engineering and chemistry.

 The goal of nanotechnology is to manipulate atoms individually and place them in a pattern to produce the desired structure. Nano-sized machines called assemblers, that can be programmed to manipulate atoms and molecules at will, would be used to build consumer goods. Some nanomachines called replicators would be programmed to build assemblers.

Nanotechnology would enable the creation of new generation of computer components with enormous storage capacity. But the greatest impact of nanotechnology could be the medical industry. Patients would drink fluids containing nanorobots programmed to attack and reconstruct the molecular structure of cancer cells and viruses to makes them harmless. Nanorobots could also be programmed to perform delicate surgeries.

For environmental clean-up, airborne nanorobots could be user programmed to rebuild the thinning ozone layer. Contaminants could be automatically removed from water sources, and spill could be cleaned up instantly.

Nanotechnology was first introduced in 1959, in a talk by the Nobel Prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman, entitled "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom", Feynman proposed using a set of conventional-sized robot arms to construct a replica of themselves, but one-tenth of the original size, then using that new set of arms to manufacture an even smaller set, and so on, until the molecular-scale is reached. if we had many million or billions of such molecular-scale products built from individual molecules - a "bottom-up manufacturing" technique, as opposed to the usual technique of cutting away material until you have a completed component or product -"top-down manufacturing".